Carum carvi

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Carum carvi L.

Apiaceae

Life form: annual or biennial
Usage: economic plant / Usage: ornamental plant

Exposure: sun   3

Moisture: moderately moist bis Moisture: moist

Soil: sandy loam - Soil: gritty loam

Arrangement: alternate
Leaves: decidious

Shape: lanceolate

Division: bipinnate

    

Shape: five-stellate
Fruit: achene

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Inflorescence: compound umbel

Petals: single
Habit: not specified

Growth form: not specified

Taxonomy

Divisio:
Magnoliophyta
Subdivisio:
Magnoliophytina
Classis:
Rosopsida
Subclassis:
Cornidae
Superordo:
Aralianae
Ordo:
Araliales

Carum carvi, commonly known as caraway, belongs to the group of annual and biennial plants.

Naming

Carum carvi was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The name is considered as validly published.

Taxonomy

Carum carvi is the type species of the genus Carum which contains approximately 31 to 96 species and belongs to the family of the Apiaceae (Carrot Family).

Characteristics

Carum carvi - fruits

Growth

The plants are comparatively fast-growing and reach heights of 40 to 60 centimetres. The plants reach a width of 10 to 30 centimetres.

Leaves

Carum carvi is deciduous. The green, bipinnate leaves are alternate. The leaflets are lanceolate and have entire margins. The surface of the leaves is glabrous. They turn an attractive yellow in autumn.

Flowers and Fruits

Carum carvi produces compound umbels of white five-stellate flowers from May to June. The plants are hermaphroditic.

The plants produce brown achenes from summer to autumn.

Root System

Distribution

Carum carvi is native to the whole of Europe with the exception of the British Isles, Turkey, the Caucasus, northern Iran, West-Siberia, East Siberia, the Kamtschatka Peninsula, Central Asia, Mongolia, Afghanistan, the Himalaya, China and Northwest Africa and is naturalized in North America and New Zealand.

Cultivation

The plants prefer a sunny situation on fresh to moist soil. The substrate should be sandy-loamy or gritty-loamy soil with a pH between 6,5 and 7,5. They tolerate temperatures down to -40°C (USDA zone 3).

Classification after Prof. Dr. Sieber

  • open areas
  • woodland borders (soil usually rich in humus)

Uses

The recommended planting distance is 40 centimetres, the plants are best planted in groups of 3 to 5. Suited for cottage gardens, as well as suited as container plant and as bee pasture.

Maintenance and Propagation

  • Some seedheads should remain on the plant for species preservation.
  • Cut back after flowering to prevent self-seeding.


Cultivars

Pests and Diseases

Literature

  • Walter Erhardt, Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold: Der große Zander. Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7. (Ger.)
  • Christoper Brickell (Editor-in-chief): RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Third edition. Dorling Kindersley, London 2003, ISBN 0-7513-3738-2.

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