Achillea millefolium

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Achillea millefolium L.

Asteraceae

Life form: perennial
Usage: economic plant

Exposure: sun   4

Moisture: dry

Soil: loam - Soil: sandy loam

Arrangement: alternate
Leaves: semi-evergreen

Shape: lanceolate

Division: simple

    

Shape: many-stellate
Fruit: achene

N999D / ffffff 

Inflorescence: corymb

Petals: not specified
Habit: erect

Growth form: prostrate

Taxonomy

Divisio:
Magnoliophyta
Subdivisio:
Magnoliophytina
Classis:
Rosopsida
Subclassis:
Asteridae
Superordo:
Asteranae
Ordo:
Asterales

Achillea millefolium, commonly known as common yarrow, is a perennial.

Naming

Achillea millefolium was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The name is considered as validly published.

The name of the genus alludes to Achilles, the fabled hero of the Trojan war, who discovered it as medicinal plant and supposedly used it as a vulnerary drug (Iliad, 11. song, vers 822ff.), the species name millefolium (thousand-leaf) describes the finely dissected leaves.

Taxonomy

Achillea millefolium is the type species of the genus Achillea which contains approximately 171 to 348 species and belongs to the family of the Asteraceae (Aster Family).

Characteristics

Achillea millefolium - habitus

Growth

The perennials have a prostrate growth and reach heights of 20 to 120 centimetres. The plants reach a width of 0.6 to 1 metres.

Leaves

Achillea millefolium is semi-deciduous. The dark-green, simple leaves are alternate. They are lanceolate with pinnatisect margins and pinnate venation. The surface of the leaves is glabrous to tomentose.

Flowers and Fruits

Achillea millefolium produces corymbs of white many-stellate flowers from May to July.

The perennials produce brown achenes in summer.

Root System

The plants form rhizomes.

Distribution

Achillea millefolium is native to the whole of Europe, Turkey, the Caucasus, Iran, the Himalaya, West-Siberia and Central Asia and is naturalized in North America, Australia and New Zealand. The plants occur on plains as well as right up to high mountains and can be found in nutrient-rich meadows, semi-arid grasslands and waysides. They are soil stabilizers and nutrient indicators for nitrogen.

growth on nutrient-rich soil
cultivar 'Paprika' together with summer annuals

Cultivation

The perennials prefer a sunny situation on dry soil but do not tolerate droughts. They prefer loamy or sandy-loamy soil with a pH between 6 and 8. They grow well on nutrient-rich soils but will grow too fast thus becoming unstable. Better are nutrient-poor, freely draining soils. The plants need a soil depth of at least 20 centimetres for good growth. They tolerate temperatures down to -35°C (USDA zone 4).

Classification after Prof. Dr. Sieber:

  • open areas

Tolerance of special soil conditions

  • none: anaerobic soil, drought
  • low: calcareous soil
  • high: city climate

Uses

The recommended planting distance is 40 centimetres, the perennials are best planted in groups of 3 to 5. Suited for roof greening and for beds and borders, as well as suited as cut flowers and as bee pasture. Good plant neighbours are e.g. Salvia nemorosa, Centranthus ruber, Artemisia ludoviciana, Stachys bycantina, Calamintha nepeta, and various grasses.

Maintenance and Propagation

The plants need little to no maintenance if grown under suitable conditions.

  • Remove runners if no spreading is desired.
  • Cut back all shoots considerably after flowering to promote healthy growth.

Propagation

Propagate by sowing. Colour variation may occur when propagating cultivars by sowing, in that case propagate by cuttings or by division.

Cultivars

colour variation
of seedlings ...

Images of more Achillea millefolium cultivars.

Poisonousness

The sap may slightly irritate the skin.

Aeskulap  Please read the health issues note

Pests and Diseases

A powdery white coat on the plants indicates an infection with powdery mildew. Remove affected plants and apply a fungicide. To prevent infection improve ventilation, keep the roots moist and do not water the plants from above.

White tufts or white covering on the lower surface of the leaves indicates an infection with downy mildew. Remove affected plants and apply a fungicide. To prevent infection improve ventilation, keep the roots moist and do not water the plants from above.

Brown, orange or yellowish pustules on shoots and on the leaves lower surfaces are very likely caused by a fungal infestation (rust). Remove affected parts and apply fungicide. Also improve ventilation and reduce humidity.

Literature

  • Walter Erhardt, Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold: Der große Zander. Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7. (Ger.)
  • Christoper Brickell (Editor-in-chief): RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Third edition. Dorling Kindersley, London 2003, ISBN 0-7513-3738-2.

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